inflammatory kidney disease in children; The first 2 reasons
Pediatric pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection that affects the upper part of the urinary tract, causing inflammation of the kidneys and pelvis. Although the disease seems serious, adherence to treatment and prevention methods reduces the severity of the disease and can prevent possible complications. Find out with us about kidney infection in children, the most important related risk factor, and methods of treatment and prevention of pyelonephritis.
What is inflammatory kidney disease in children?
Pediatric pyelonephritis, or what is called nephritis in children, is a septic bacterial infection that often affects the renal parenchyma, that is, the pelvis and kidneys, and the condition often requires admission of the child to the hospital for treatment when it is serious. state.
In children with upper urinary tract infections, the infection can affect one or both kidneys, and is common in children under the age of three.
A kidney infection is usually caused by an infection of the lower urinary tract, i.e. the bladder most of the time, where pathogenic germs colonize the epithelium of the bladder and then invade the rest of the urinary tract to the kidney.In a few cases, nephritis may occur after septicemia, without lower urinary tract infection.
There are two types of disease, chronic kidney infection and acute kidney infection.
|Scientific name of the disease||Pediatric pyelonephritis|
|Other names||Kidney infection in children|
|classification of diseases||Disease of the urinary system|
|Medical specialty treatment||Faculty doctor|
|Symptoms of the disease||Fever, vomiting, inability to eat well, pain when urinating and little or no urine output|
|The degree of spread of the disease||usual|
|Treatment with drugs||antibiotics|
Causes of kidney infection in children
The occurrence of a urinary tract infection in children is a question that needs to be investigated, because there are several reasons that can cause an infection to occur, which complicate the ways in which the body carries out the elimination of germs. Among the 2 most important causes of IMS after a lower inflammatory infection, we mention the following:
- Structural abnormalities that interfere with urine drainage.
- A continuous flow of urine is one of the defenses against pathogens.
- Vesicoureteral reflux.
- The normal flow of urine is from the ureter to the bladder, but for several reasons the opposite flow can occur, which predisposes children to nephritis.
The most common bacterial agent that causes pyelonephritis in children is the bacterium Escherichia coli (E.coli). It is responsible for approximately 80 percent of cases of nephritis and is responsible for two-thirds of recurrent cases of nephritis.
So, two things are necessary for pyelonephritis to occur:
- Bacterial colonization of the bladder surface.
- Bacterial ascent in the upper urinary tract.
The most common cause of lower urinary tract sepsis in children younger than 3 months is failure to perform circumcision.
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Factors that increase the risk of nephritis in children?
Many things can predict the risk of renal pelvis infection in children, so one should be careful and act preventively to avoid kidney infection. Among the most important reasons that increase the frequency of kidney diseases in children and pyelonephritis are the following:
- Previous urinary tract infection.
- Having a relative in the first generation (first-generation relative), i.e. a brother or sister with nephritis.
- The presence of obstruction in the urinary tract predisposes the occurrence of nephritis in children.
- Retention of urine or inability to void for a satisfactory reason.
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Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis in children
Kidney function can be disturbed, because there are several symptoms and signs that predict the presence of nephritis in children, so a sick child must be carefully examined so that the doctor can identify the disease and proceed to a procedure that will help in the correct diagnosis. .
The most common symptoms of pyelonephritis in newborns are as follows:
- Vomiting, inability to eat well.
- Jaundice, i.e. yellow discoloration of the eyes and skin.
Moreover, the symptoms of kidney infection in older children can be with the following signs and symptoms:
- Blood in the urine or bad smell.
- Abdominal or back pain.
- Pain during urination.
- Little or no urine.
- polyuria and urgent urination.
- In other words, a sense of urgency to urinate suddenly and frequent urination.
However, the following facts should be taken into account because nephritis in children can include the following:
- 25% of cases of nephritis and pyelonephritis in children are asymptomatic, and the child is actually infected with the disease.
- 50% of infected children only have flank pain.
- In infants and young children – i.e. children aged one to two years – the most common symptoms are fever and irritability.
- In older children, the main manifestations are signs of sepsis of the lower urinary tract, as well as fever, chills and pain in the hips.
Complications of pediatric pyelonephritis
Nephritis in children can cause many complications, which can permanently destroy kidney function, so pyelonephritis in children at risk of infection must be completely treated and prevented.
The most important complications that can occur are the following:
- Recurrence of injury.
- Kidney scarring, high renal pressure.
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Diagnosis of nephritis in children
When a kidney infection is suspected in a child, the infection must be confirmed by examination and urine or blood tests, along with kidney imaging.
The most important proven means and help in diagnosing kidney infection in children are as follows:
- Urine examination.
- Cultivation of urine can show the type of germ causing the disease.
- Examination of the urine under a microscope shows the presence of white blood cells, and a few red blood cells may also be present.
- Echocardiography and nephritis in children.
In the urine examination, there are 4 main factors that diagnose inflammatory kidney disease, namely:
- Positive esterase secreted from leukocytes.
- The presence of nitrites in the urine.
- More than 5 leukocytes per unit of measure used.
- Look at any germ under a microscope.
Nevertheless, the gold standard in diagnostics remains the bacterial culture, which is the positive presence of one bacterial species with a certain number of colonies that varies depending on the sampling method and age.
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Treatment of inflammatory kidney disease in children
The main treatment for kidney infection in children is antibiotics to clear the bacterial infection, and sometimes it can be home treatment, but the child must be admitted to hospital if:
- The child is dehydrated.
- A child younger than two months.
- severe vomiting
In the event that treatment involves staying at home, antibiotics can be given orally, and for children with kidney infections who are admitted to hospital, antibiotics are given intravenously.
The child may require surgical treatment if the cause is, for example, a defect in the anatomical structure.
Medicines used to treat kidney infections in children
When antibiotics are administered intravenously, the drugs of choice are most often ampicillin and gentamicin.
For oral antibiotics in children treated at home, cephalosporins, penicillins, beta-lactams or ciprofloxacin can be given.
Intravenous treatment lasting one day for inflammatory kidney diseases in children, then oral treatment, and the entire course of treatment from ten to fourteen days.
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How to prevent kidney and urinary tract infections in children
Prevention is much better than treatment for kidney infections and kidney diseases in children. If your child is at risk of developing a kidney infection, the risk of kidney infection in children can be reduced by doing the following:
- Change the baby’s diapers often.
- Encourage the child to empty his bladder often.
- Children should be encouraged to drink enough or increase their water intake.
- Teach the child how to clean himself well after urination and defecation.
- If the child is constipated, it is necessary to provide appropriate treatment.
For children under two years of age, the American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends a urinary tract ultrasound to detect any congenital abnormalities.
Frequently asked questions about inflammatory kidney disease in children
How can you confirm nephritis in children?
Kidney infection in children can be confirmed by urine culture.
Here we learned about pediatric pyelonephritis, and we presented the most important predisposing factors for the onset of the disease, and how it manifests itself, taking into account the different ages of children. If your child has kidney inflammation in children, follow the above advice and do not forget to consult a specialist doctor.